MATTER: International Journal of Science and Technology


MATTER: International Journal of Science and Technology is an open access, peer-reviewed and refereed international journal published by GRDS Publishing.

The main objective of ‘Matter’ is to provide an intellectual platform for the international researchers. ‘Matter’ aims to promote interdisciplinary studies in science and technology and become the leading journal in physical science and engineering technology. This journal is dedicated for the marvelous concept called ‘Matter’ that is the manifestation of super-consciousness called ‘God’, which arranges and re-arranges infinitely to formulate, transform and empower all living, non-living and beyond.

The journal publishes research papers in the fields of physical sciences and engineering technology such as Astronomy and Astrophysics, Chemistry, Chemical and Food Technology, Nanotechnology, Earth and atmospheric sciences, Physics, Environmental Science, Computer science and Information Technology, Engineering, Robotics and Automation, Materials science, Mathematics, Mechanics, Statistics, Pharmaceutical Sciences and Biotechnology, and other upcoming areas of physical science and engineering technology.



Dr. Md Saidin Wahab

Associate Professor, Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Johor, Malaysia



No Publication/ Submission/ Processing Fee

The journal is published only in the online version, totally free of cost for authors.


Copyright of Published Articles

Author(s) retain the article copyright and publishing rights without any restrictions.


Open Access Statement

This is an open-access journal which means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles in this journal without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the BOAI definition of open access.


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‘Matter’ publishes original papers, review papers, conceptual framework, analytical and simulation models, case studies, empirical research, technical notes, and book reviews. Special Issues devoted to important topics in physical sciences and engineering technology will occasionally be published. GRDS Publishing makes every effort to ensure the accuracy of all the information (the “Content”) contained in the publications on our platform. However, GRDS Publishing, our agents, and our licensors make no representations or warranties whatsoever as to the accuracy, completeness, or suitability for any purpose of the Content. Any opinions and views expressed in this publication are the opinions and views of the authors, and are not the views of or endorsed by GRDS Publishing. The accuracy of the Content should not be relied upon and should be independently verified with primary sources of information. GRDS Publishing shall not be liable for any losses, actions, claims, proceedings, demands, costs, expenses, damages, and other liabilities whatsoever or howsoever caused arising directly or indirectly in connection with, in relation to or arising out of the use of the Content. The published articles may be used for research, teaching, and private study purposes.


Frequency: 3 Issues in a Year




ISSN 2454-5880



Creative Commons License
All published work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

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Vol 4, No 3 (2018): Regular Issue

Table of Contents


Lilis Kistriyani, Muhammad Abu Dzar Al Ghifari, Miftahil Mawaddah, Yolla Dwita Sari
Michael Chang, Rohan J. Dalpatadu, Dieudonne Phanord, Ashok K. Singh
Alfani Risman Nugroho, Emiliana Anggriyani
Emiliana Anggriyani, Alfani Risman Nugroho
Yasemin Öztürk, Zehra Tuğçe Kazanasmaz
Rúben D A R Martins, Elza M M Fonseca